Saturday, September 14, 2019
Agrarian Reform Issues
Answer the following questions after reading the document about poverty, all reports of each group/individual and the discussions we had in the classroom. Limit your answer to seven to ten substantive sentences only fully cited by related reviews and studies that you will use in the critique/answer. Plagiarized statements and notations shall be considered as invalid and the document will be equivalent to zero. Type your answer on this questionnaire. 1. Discuss how issues and problems are dealt with in social planning and social policy writing based from the framework below Fig. Schematic framework showing the interrelatedness of social institutions, and social structures. Social Structures Social Institutions -Society is defined by the interconnection of units that creates larger scale system relations in the society. Emile DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s sociological theory which is Structural Functionalism would perfectly represent the schematic framework. According to him, structural functional ism is when societies tend to be divided but is held together by shared values, common symbols or systems of exchanges, which creates stability. Small factors in the structure would eventually affect the higher strata of the society, there is interdependence among us, society is a network of statuses connected by associated roles (Leung, Richardson). The formulation of social policies is based on the needs of the status quo, it is deeply associated by the present condition of the society. In the paper of Subedi entitled Ã¢â¬ËStructural Functional Perspective in SociologyÃ¢â¬â¢ discussed the consensus and conflict perspective wherein due to conflict Ã¢â¬Å"society cannot operate for any length of time on the basis of force. Society is held together by the consensus of its membersÃ¢â¬ . It simply describes society as a perpetually changing structure which needs continuous planning and execution of social programs to keep up with the progressing evolution of humanity. Social planning and policy making is the analysis of the things that a social system needs in order to survive. One of the objectives of this is to maintain the stability of pattern, facilitates the society in resolving social problems, and integrating dependent units in achieving unity (Subedi, 2010). 2. Discuss landlessness as a social problem. Please highlight its impact on farmers and society as a whole. -Landlessness is a manifestation of poverty wherein a person is deprived on the possession of land as an opportunity for growth or development. Unequal distribution of land is the root cause of the landlessness of the farmers, this could be traced in the Spanish colonization wherein the encomienda system were put into practice wherein the landowners would hire farmers to till their land and most of the revenues that will be generated will be on the hands of the landowners which is apparently unfair. Landlessness is a significant social problem because it would worsen other social problems that are already present. Take Uganda for example, a study that was conducted by Alinyo and Leahy (2007) entitled Ã¢â¬Ëthe Impact of Landlessness on Sustainable Agricultural Initiatives; Benet Sub County, Kapchorwa, UgandaÃ¢â¬â¢, wherein the study discusses that the issues of landlessness are cause by the following: Rapid population growth, lack of ownership rights, inadequate extension services. The effects would be: Low crop yields, low household incomes, hunger that would totally result into rural poverty. The case of Uganda is not different to the situation of the Philippines with regards to landlessness, landlessness of the farmers has been an issue since then, a clear example representing this problem is the case of Hacienda Luisita wherein the problem has not yet been resolve because it is often disregarded to be the focal point of concern in the Philippine government. Landlessness are equivalent to the unequal distribution of access to opportunities and wealth, this has been the outcome of the Philippines choices of development trategies, policies and investment regime, and national and local institutions governing economic transactions, including land relations (Balisacan 2003, 2007). The impact of landlessness in the society as a whole would lead into social unrest among the people that is affected by this issue and thus lead into various deviances and protest that would disturb the present society. 3. What are the issues behind the Agrarian Reform Program on why the problem about landlessness? Is it about the law itself or how it is implemented? Examples that will be presented in this paper would come from the paper of Antonio Ledesma (1982) entitled Ã¢â¬ËLandless Workers and Rice Farmers: Peasant Subclasses Under Agrarian Reform in Two Philippine VillagesÃ¢â¬â¢. Of these issues behind the Agrarian reform includes the security concerns of landless farmer, owner-cultivatorship and permanent lessees. One of the main objectives of Agrarian refom program is the creation of an independent peasant class of owner-cultivators whose claim to ownership are based precisely on being the tillers of the soil. But in some barangays, landless workers spend more hours in actual rice farming operations than the agrarian refom beneficiaries. Another issue is the stagnant development of the tenant farmers that is stuck on being a tenant rather than owning a piece of land. Base on the findings on the paper of Ledesma Agrarian Reform itself has a good aim on the development of the farmers, however, the implementation of such program seems to fail since the situation of the past seems to never change. In conclusion, the planning is good but the execution of programs must be put into consideration. 4. Write a social policy about how problem on landlessness can be resolved? Take not of the introduction, provisions, time frame, how it will be implemented and the monitoring scheme, Ã¢â¬â This act is prepared in order to promulgate the rights of landless farmers and to recognize the sector as one of the most important contributors in the Philippine economy. With this social policy they would given a period of training development to maximize their skills as a contributor of the Philippine economy and a sector that has a paramount importance since they provide food for the Philippine population. The time frame for this social policy would require a 10 year period. Policies that will be included is the educational grants of the farmers wherein they must undergo training like irrigation, usage of advance equipments, modern seeds and scientific ways of propagating plants. The government must provide a wide scheme of budget for this policy because capital should be provided for institutional and attitudinal change of the people in the sector. The role of various institutions like the UP Los Banos, DOST will be stressed since the development of research for modern and improve seeds and planting materials will be focus upon to benefit for the farmers. The establishments of cooperative agricultures will be form for larger productivity and shared profits among farmers. There should also be a series of extension services at the time frame wherein agriculturists will visit areas ,particularly areas where rice production is prevalent , to train and advice farmers on advance farming methods. Establishment of farm infrastructures should also be implemented and lastly farmers will be given other sources of income and livelihood. The root policy for this action is the allocation of a larger budget for agriculture.